Conference Papers

  1. Kathryn Mummah, P. P.H WIlson, " Integrating Acquisition Pathway Analysis Into The Cyclus Fuel Cycle Simulator ", Proceedings of the 61st INMM Meeting, (July 2020)
    @inproceedings{mummah_integrating_2020,
    	title = {Integrating {Acquisition} {Pathway} {Analysis} {Into} {The} {Cyclus} {Fuel} {Cycle} {Simulator}},
    	booktitle = {Proceedings of the 61st {INMM} {Meeting}},
    	author = {Mummah, Kathryn and WIlson, P. P.H},
    	month = jul,
    	year = {2020},
    }
    
  2. Kalin R. Kiesling, Paul P.H. Wilson, " Preliminary Results for Particle Tracking on Weight Window Isosurface Geometries for Monte Carlo Variance Reduction ", ANS Winter Meeting 2019 Transactions, (October 19, 2019)
    @inproceedings{kiesling_preliminary_2019,
    	address = {Washington, D.C.},
    	title = {Preliminary {Results} for {Particle} {Tracking} on {Weight} {Window} {Isosurface} {Geometries} for {Monte} {Carlo} {Variance} {Reduction}},
    	volume = {121},
    	booktitle = {{ANS} {Winter} {Meeting} 2019 {Transactions}},
    	publisher = {American Nuclear Society},
    	author = {Kiesling, Kalin R. and Wilson, Paul P.H.},
    	month = oct,
    	year = {2019},
    	pages = {755--758},
    }
    
  3. Kathryn Mummah, Rian Bahran, Karen Miller, Paul PH Wilson,, " Acquisition Pathway Analysis using Fuel Cycle Simulators ", Proceedings of the 60th INMM Meeting, (July 17, 2019)
    @inproceedings{mummah_acquisition_2019,
    	address = {Palm Desert, CA, USA},
    	title = {Acquisition {Pathway} {Analysis} using {Fuel} {Cycle} {Simulators}},
    	booktitle = {Proceedings of the 60th {INMM} {Meeting}},
    	author = {Mummah, Kathryn and Bahran, Rian and Miller, Karen and Wilson,, Paul PH},
    	month = jul,
    	year = {2019},
    }
    
  4. Baptiste Mouginot, Kathryn Mummah, Paul P.H. Wilson, " Assessing Material Inventory Uncertainties in Integrated Fuel Cycle Simulations ", Proceedings of the 2018 Advances in Nuclear Nonproliferation Technology and Policy Conference, (September 23-27, 2018)
    @inproceedings{mouginot_assessing_2018,
    	address = {Wilmington, NC},
    	title = {Assessing {Material} {Inventory} {Uncertainties} in {Integrated} {Fuel} {Cycle} {Simulations}},
    	booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2018 {Advances} in {Nuclear} {Nonproliferation} {Technology} and {Policy} {Conference}},
    	author = {Mouginot, Baptiste and Mummah, Kathryn and Wilson, Paul P.H.},
    	month = sep,
    	year = {2018},
    }
    
  5. Young-Hui Park, Alexander Swenson, P.P.H Wilson, Ye Cheng, Richard L. Reed, et al, " Improved modeling of the University of Wisconsin nuclear reactor by automatic generation of computational models ", PHYSOR 2018, (April 2018)
    Computational models for the University of Wisconsin Nuclear Reactor (UWNR) exist primarily to support the design of experiments, including an impending measurement of transient reactor physics behavior. Prior modeling efforts faced inherent challenges on long term maintainability and usability. Therefore, an improved model has been built with the following features: (1) documentation with reliable source of data, (2) build consistency by virtue of automation, (3) human readability and transparency of implemented changes on the model, (4) configuration management by version control, and (5) modularity for alternate representations. The benefits of these improvements are examined in terms of model accuracy, flexibility of modeling choices, and predictive analysis of the reactor conditions. MCNP6 demonstrated a computational bias of 604 ± 48 pcm, and Serpent showed an additional bias of 28 ± 23 pcm relative to the MCNP6 results. A study of the impact of varying modeling choices during burnup simulation found that the fuel discretization is important because of the higher fidelity representation of the temperature distribution, and therefore the variations in isotopic evolution. Estimates of the core life and power peaking factors were then generated using both MCNP6 and Serpent, using models automatically generated from the same source data.
    @inproceedings{park_improved_2018,
    	address = {Cancun, Mexico},
    	title = {Improved modeling of the {University} of {Wisconsin} nuclear reactor by automatic generation of computational models},
    	abstract = {Computational models for the University of Wisconsin Nuclear Reactor (UWNR) exist primarily to support the design of experiments, including an impending measurement of transient reactor physics behavior. Prior modeling efforts faced inherent challenges on long term maintainability and usability. Therefore, an improved model has been built with the following features: (1) documentation with reliable source of data, (2) build consistency by virtue of automation, (3) human readability and transparency of implemented changes on the model, (4) configuration management by version control, and (5) modularity for alternate representations.
    The benefits of these improvements are examined in terms of model accuracy, flexibility of modeling choices, and predictive analysis of the reactor conditions. MCNP6 demonstrated a computational bias of 604 ± 48 pcm, and Serpent showed an additional bias of 28 ± 23 pcm relative to the MCNP6 results. A study of the impact of varying modeling choices during burnup simulation found that the fuel discretization is important because of the higher fidelity representation of the temperature distribution, and therefore the variations in isotopic evolution. Estimates of the core life and power peaking factors were then generated using both MCNP6 and Serpent, using models automatically generated from the same source data.},
    	booktitle = {{PHYSOR} 2018},
    	author = {Park, Young-Hui and Swenson, Alexander and Wilson, P.P.H and Cheng, Ye and Reed, Richard L. and Roberts, Jeremy A.},
    	month = apr,
    	year = {2018},
    }
    
  6. Patrick Shriwise, Andrew Davis, Lucas Jacobson, Paul Wilson, " Particle Tracking Accelerations via Signed Distance Fields in DAGMC ", , (April 16-20, 2017)
    CAD-based Monte Carlo radtiaion transport is of value to the nuclear engineering community for its ability to conduct transport on high fidelity models of nuclear systems, but it is more computationally expensive than native geometry representations. This work describes the adaptation of a rendering data structure, the signed distance field, as a geometric query tool for accelerating CAD-based transport in the Direct Accelerated Monte Carlo (DAGMC) toolkit. Demonstrations of its effectiveness are shown for a number of problems. The beginnings of a predictive model for the data structure's utilization based on various problem parameters is also introduced.
    @inproceedings{shriwise_particle_2017,
    	address = {Jeju, South Korea},
    	title = {Particle {Tracking} {Accelerations} via {Signed} {Distance} {Fields} in {DAGMC}},
    	abstract = {CAD-based Monte Carlo radtiaion transport is of value to the nuclear engineering community for its ability to conduct transport on high fidelity models of nuclear systems, but it is more computationally expensive than native geometry representations. This work describes the adaptation of a rendering data structure, the signed distance field, as a geometric query tool for accelerating CAD-based transport in the Direct Accelerated Monte Carlo (DAGMC) toolkit. Demonstrations of its effectiveness are shown for a number of problems. The beginnings of a predictive model for the data structure's utilization based on various problem parameters is also introduced.},
    	publisher = {American Nuclear Society},
    	author = {Shriwise, Patrick and Davis, Andrew and Jacobson, Lucas and Wilson, Paul},
    	month = apr,
    	year = {2017},
    }
    
  7. M.B. McGarry, M. Fisher, D. Djokic, A. Opotowsky, " Earlier Integration of Nuclear Science and Security Policy Training Could Bridge the Gap between Nuclear Security Professionals ", Proceedings of the 57th INMM Annual Meeting, (2017)
    Training nuclear security professionals revolves around a central question: What is the best way to equip future security leaders to address global challenges, in both the policy and technology realms? Despite an increasing emphasis on the need of policymakers and scientists to work more closely together, there is little opportunity to ‘crossover’ through traditional educational or professional avenues. An absence of effective ‘hybrid’ opportunities in the education of nuclear issues is rooted in the historically fundamentally different structure of training policymakers and scientists, with varying metrics of success. Five broadly divergent areas have been identified as contributing barriers to interdisciplinary collaboration. A Relationship Gap develops as incongruent professional timelines result in a dearth of interdisciplinary networking opportunities. A Training Gap exists because students are often trained to focus on either a technical or policy-oriented field, with little formal support for development of both. A Culture Gap develops as policy professionals and scientists cultivate different professional languages, values, and products. These three gaps combine to facilitate two overarching gaps. Under the Expectation Gap, traditional expectations of Masters or PhD candidates confine career options within academia or national labs. The Career Gap arises because employers often do not adequately value a hybrid approach to training in both science and policy. The result of these gaps is that the formal educational and career development framework in nuclear security is now out of step with the emerging need for interdisciplinary specialists spanning the private sector, public sector, think tanks, and international organizations and more, dealing with issues ranging from public health and biotechnology to cyber security and more. There is a strong need for increased collaboration between technical and policy fields in the nuclear security arena. Moreover, there should be clear advocacy for an integrated nuclear security education pipeline through the early and mid-career stages. While attempts have been made to bridge the aforementioned gaps, progress remains slow. In this paper, proposals to address this divide are discussed: harmonization of technical and policy fields through interdisciplinary internship and research experiences, requirements for training outside the main field of study, promotion of certificate programs, expansion of hybrid career opportunities, establishment of crossover opportunities or introduction of a foreign service-like program that extends beyond the short term. These measures could improve understanding and communication on both sides of the technical-policy divide, leading to more integrated approaches to addressing nuclear security issues
    @inproceedings{mcgarry_earlier_2017,
    	address = {Atlanta},
    	title = {Earlier {Integration} of {Nuclear} {Science} and {Security} {Policy} {Training} {Could} {Bridge} the {Gap} between {Nuclear} {Security} {Professionals}},
    	abstract = {Training nuclear security professionals revolves around a central question: What is the best way to equip future security leaders to address global challenges, in both the policy and technology realms? Despite an increasing emphasis on the need of policymakers and scientists to work more closely together, there is little opportunity to ‘crossover’ through traditional educational or professional avenues. An absence of effective ‘hybrid’ opportunities in the education of nuclear issues is rooted in the historically fundamentally different structure of training policymakers and scientists, with varying metrics of success. Five broadly divergent areas have been identified as contributing barriers to interdisciplinary collaboration. A Relationship Gap develops as incongruent professional timelines result in a dearth of interdisciplinary networking opportunities. A Training Gap exists because students are often trained to focus on either a technical or policy-oriented field, with little formal support for development of both. A Culture Gap develops as policy professionals and scientists cultivate different professional languages, values, and products. These three gaps combine to facilitate two overarching gaps. Under the Expectation Gap, traditional expectations of Masters or PhD candidates confine career options within academia or national labs. The Career Gap arises because employers often do not adequately value a hybrid approach to training in both science and policy. The result of these gaps is that the formal educational and career development framework in nuclear security is now out of step with the emerging need for interdisciplinary specialists spanning the private sector, public sector, think tanks, and international organizations and more, dealing with issues ranging from public health and biotechnology to cyber security and more. There is a strong need for increased collaboration between technical and policy fields in the nuclear security arena. Moreover, there should be clear advocacy for an integrated nuclear security education pipeline through the early and mid-career stages. While attempts have been made to bridge the aforementioned gaps, progress remains slow. In this paper, proposals to address this divide are discussed: harmonization of technical and policy fields through interdisciplinary internship and research experiences, requirements for training outside the main field of study, promotion of certificate programs, expansion of hybrid career opportunities, establishment of crossover opportunities or introduction of a foreign service-like program that extends beyond the short term. These measures could improve understanding and communication on both sides of the technical-policy divide, leading to more integrated approaches to addressing nuclear security issues},
    	booktitle = {Proceedings of the 57th {INMM} {Annual} {Meeting}},
    	author = {McGarry, M.B. and Fisher, M. and Djokic, D. and Opotowsky, A.},
    	year = {2017},
    }
    
  8. Meghan B. McGarry, Chris Hoffman, Baptiste Mouginot, Drew Buys, Paul P.H. Wilson, " State-Level Decision-Making In Cyclus to Assess Multilateral Enrichment ", Proceedings of the 58th INMM Annual Meeting, (2017)
    Proposed treaties and agreements that aim to reduce the spread of nuclear weapons are often stalled by skepticism regarding their efficacy. For example, the concept of multilateral enrichment, in which multiple states co-own and operate an enrichment facility, has the potential to reduce the spread of enrichment technology. However, detractors point to the improved international networking opportunities inherent in multinational organizations as a risk factor for increased proliferation. A framework to compare the relative risk between a multilateral enrichment paradigm and the status quo, on a regional scale, can help inform the discussion and potentially identify ways to reduce global risk of nuclear proliferation. As part of the Consortium for Verification Technology, the Cyclus fuel cycle simulator is being used as a test-bed for the development of such new technologies and approaches to treaty verification. Cyclus is a systems-level nuclear fuel cycle simulator that models the interactions between actors in the nuclear arena. While designed to track the flow of nuclear material between facilities, Cyclus also incorporates an innovative Region-Institution-Facility hierarchy that can capture the dynamics of state-level interactions. Drawing on social science literature to identify factors that motivate states to pursue weapons programs, we have developed a regional proliferation model that captures causes and effects of state-level nuclear weapons proliferation. The model identifies eight key factors that influence a states decision to pursue nuclear weapons. These factors include motivations internal to the state, such as military spending and governing structure, as well as interactive factors such as conflict between states. Historical data is used to identify the relative importance of these factors and translate them into a likelihood of pursuing a weapon. The model also provides a feedback mechanism such that acquisition of a nuclear weapon by one state influences the decision-making of the other states. This model will be used to assess the effectiveness of policy approaches, such as multilateralization of the fuel cycle, that seek to reduce the regional risk of proliferation over time.
    @inproceedings{mcgarry_state-level_2017,
    	address = {Palm Desert, CA, USA},
    	title = {State-{Level} {Decision}-{Making} {In} {Cyclus} to {Assess} {Multilateral} {Enrichment}},
    	abstract = {Proposed treaties and agreements that aim to reduce the spread of nuclear weapons are often stalled by skepticism regarding their efficacy. For example, the concept of multilateral enrichment, in which multiple states co-own and operate an enrichment facility, has the potential to reduce the spread of enrichment technology. However, detractors point to the improved international networking opportunities inherent in multinational organizations as a risk factor for increased proliferation. A framework to compare the relative risk between a multilateral enrichment paradigm and the status quo, on a regional scale, can help inform the discussion and potentially identify ways to reduce global risk of nuclear proliferation. As part of the Consortium for Verification Technology, the Cyclus fuel cycle simulator is being used as a test-bed for the development of such new technologies and approaches to treaty verification. Cyclus is a systems-level nuclear fuel cycle simulator that models the interactions between actors in the nuclear arena. While designed to track the flow of nuclear material between facilities, Cyclus also incorporates an innovative Region-Institution-Facility hierarchy that can capture the dynamics of state-level interactions. Drawing on social science literature to identify factors that motivate states to pursue weapons programs, we have developed a regional proliferation model that captures causes and effects of state-level nuclear weapons proliferation. The model identifies eight key factors that influence a states decision to pursue nuclear weapons. These factors include motivations internal to the state, such as military spending and governing structure, as well as interactive factors such as conflict between states. Historical data is used to identify the relative importance of these factors and translate them into a likelihood of pursuing a weapon. The model also provides a feedback mechanism such that acquisition of a nuclear weapon by one state influences the decision-making of the other states. This model will be used to assess the effectiveness of policy approaches, such as multilateralization of the fuel cycle, that seek to reduce the regional risk of proliferation over time.},
    	booktitle = {Proceedings of the 58th {INMM} {Annual} {Meeting}},
    	author = {McGarry, Meghan B. and Hoffman, Chris and Mouginot, Baptiste and Buys, Drew and Wilson, Paul P.H.},
    	year = {2017},
    }
    
  9. M.B. McGarry, P.P.H. Wilson, T. Atwood, " Cyclus As a Synthetic Testbed of Systems-Level Diversion Signatures ", Proceedings of the 57th INMM Annual Meeting, (2016)
    Already the dominant source of clean energy, nuclear power is growing at a rapid pace. While beneficial to a world confronting climate change, the nuclear security and non-proliferation impacts of expanding nuclear power will become more consequential. As a result, it is imperative to develop credible methods to verify compliance with treaties that control fissile material production, such as the Non-Proliferation Treaty or a potential Fissile Material Cutoff Treaty. As part of the Consortium for Verification Technology, the Cyclus fuel cycle simulator is being used as a testbed for the development of new technologies and analysis approaches to treaty verification. Cyclus is an agent-based, systems-level simulator that tracks discrete material flow through the entire fuel cycle, from mining through burnup in reactors to a repository, or alternatively through one or more iterations of reprocessing. A systems-level view facilitates the study of correlated signals from different facilities that combine to form identifiable signatures of clandestine activity. Cyclus also includes a region/institution/facility hierarchy that can incorporate the effects of tariffs and sanctions in regional or global contexts. Cyclus enables social- behavioral modeling of the interactions between individual facilities or regions. This paper presents the first use of Cyclus to simulate nuclear material diversion from the fuel cycle using a variety of contemporaneous signals: material flow, facility power consumption, effluent emissions (including geospatial distribution), event-logs. Multiple signal modalities can be analyzed in concert using anomaly detection techniques to identify signatures of material diversion or other signatures of clandestine nuclear weapons development. The Cyclus testbed can then be used to examine treaty verification techniques and inspection regimens to to inform their sensitivity and limitations.
    @inproceedings{mcgarry_cyclus_2016,
    	address = {Atlanta, GA, United States},
    	title = {Cyclus {As} a {Synthetic} {Testbed} of {Systems}-{Level} {Diversion} {Signatures}},
    	abstract = {Already the dominant source of clean energy, nuclear power is growing at a rapid pace. While beneficial to a world confronting climate change, the nuclear security and non-proliferation impacts of expanding nuclear power will become more consequential. As a result, it is imperative to develop credible methods to verify compliance with treaties that control fissile material production, such as the Non-Proliferation Treaty or a potential Fissile Material Cutoff Treaty. As part of the Consortium for Verification Technology, the Cyclus fuel cycle simulator is being used as a testbed for the development of new technologies and analysis approaches to treaty verification. Cyclus is an agent-based, systems-level simulator that tracks discrete material flow through the entire fuel cycle, from mining through burnup in reactors to a repository, or alternatively through one or more iterations of reprocessing. A systems-level view facilitates the study of correlated signals from different facilities that combine to form identifiable signatures of clandestine activity. Cyclus also includes a region/institution/facility hierarchy that can incorporate the effects of tariffs and sanctions in regional or global contexts. Cyclus enables social- behavioral modeling of the interactions between individual facilities or regions. This paper presents the first use of Cyclus to simulate nuclear material diversion from the fuel cycle using a variety of contemporaneous signals: material flow, facility power consumption, effluent emissions (including geospatial distribution), event-logs. Multiple signal modalities can be analyzed in concert using anomaly detection techniques to identify signatures of material diversion or other signatures of clandestine nuclear weapons development. The Cyclus testbed can then be used to examine treaty verification techniques and inspection regimens to to inform their sensitivity and limitations.},
    	booktitle = {Proceedings of the 57th {INMM} {Annual} {Meeting}},
    	author = {McGarry, M.B. and Wilson, P.P.H. and Atwood, T.},
    	year = {2016},
    }
    
  10. Elliott Biondo, Ahmad M. Ibrahim, Scott W. Mosher, Robert E. Grove, " Accelerating Fusion Reactor Neutronics Modeling by Automatic Coupling of Hybrid Monte Carlo/Deterministic Transport on CAD Geometry ", Mathematics & Computations (M&C+SNA+MC 2015), (April 19–23, 2015)
    Detailed radiation transport calculations are necessary for many aspects of the design of fusion energy systems (FES) such as ensuring occupational safety, assessing the activation of system components for waste disposal, and maintaining cryogenic temperatures within superconducting magnets. Hybrid Monte Carlo (MC)/deterministic techniques are necessary for this analysis because FES are large, heavily shielded, and contain streaming paths that can only be resolved with MC. The tremendous complexity of FES necessitates the use of CAD geometry for design and analysis. Previous ITER analysis has required the translation of CAD geometry to MCNP5 form in order to use the AutomateD VAriaNce reducTion Generator (ADVANTG) for hybrid MC/deterministic transport. In this work, ADVANTG was modified to support CAD geometry, allowing hybrid (MC)/deterministic transport to be done automatically and eliminating the need for this translation step. This was done by adding a new ray tracing routine to ADVANTG for CAD geometries using the Direct Accelerated Geometry Monte Carlo (DAGMC) software library. This new capability is demonstrated with a prompt dose rate calculation for an ITER computational benchmark problem using both the Consistent Adjoint Driven Importance Sampling (CADIS) method an the Forward Weighted (FW)-CADIS method. The variance reduction parameters produced by ADVANTG are shown to be the same using CAD geometry and standard MCNP5 geometry. Significant speedups were observed for both neutrons (as high as a factor of 7.1) and photons (as high as a factor of 59.6).
    @inproceedings{biondo_accelerating_2015,
    	address = {Nashville, Tennessee},
    	title = {Accelerating {Fusion} {Reactor} {Neutronics} {Modeling} by {Automatic} {Coupling} of {Hybrid} {Monte} {Carlo}/{Deterministic} {Transport} on {CAD} {Geometry}},
    	isbn = {978-0-89448-720-0},
    	abstract = {Detailed radiation transport calculations are necessary for many aspects of the design of fusion
    energy systems (FES) such as ensuring occupational safety, assessing the activation of system components
    for waste disposal, and maintaining cryogenic temperatures within superconducting magnets. Hybrid
    Monte Carlo (MC)/deterministic techniques are necessary for this analysis because FES are large, heavily
    shielded, and contain streaming paths that can only be resolved with MC. The tremendous complexity of
    FES necessitates the use of CAD geometry for design and analysis. Previous ITER analysis has required
    the translation of CAD geometry to MCNP5 form in order to use the AutomateD VAriaNce reducTion
    Generator (ADVANTG) for hybrid MC/deterministic transport. In this work, ADVANTG was modified
    to support CAD geometry, allowing hybrid (MC)/deterministic transport to be done automatically and
    eliminating the need for this translation step. This was done by adding a new ray tracing routine
    to ADVANTG for CAD geometries using the Direct Accelerated Geometry Monte Carlo (DAGMC)
    software library. This new capability is demonstrated with a prompt dose rate calculation for an ITER
    computational benchmark problem using both the Consistent Adjoint Driven Importance Sampling
    (CADIS) method an the Forward Weighted (FW)-CADIS method. The variance reduction parameters
    produced by ADVANTG are shown to be the same using CAD geometry and standard MCNP5 geometry.
    Significant speedups were observed for both neutrons (as high as a factor of 7.1) and photons (as high as
    a factor of 59.6).},
    	booktitle = {Mathematics \& {Computations} ({M}\&{C}+{SNA}+{MC} 2015)},
    	author = {Biondo, Elliott and Ibrahim, Ahmad M. and Mosher, Scott W. and Grove, Robert E.},
    	month = apr,
    	year = {2015},
    }
    
  11. M.B. McGarry, P.P.H. Wilson, "Modeling Material Diversion with the Cyclus Nuclear Fuel Cycle Simulator ", International Student Young Pugwash Workshop, (2015)
    Already the dominant source of clean energy, nuclear power is growing at a rapid pace. While beneficial to a world confronting climate change, there are increasingly serious nuclear security and non-proliferation concerns attendant to this expansion. As a result, it is imperative to develop credible methods to verify compliance with treaties that control fissile material production, such as the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) or a potential Fissile Material Cutoff Treaty (FMCT). As part of the Consortium for Verification Technology, the Cyclus fuel cycle simulator is being used to model current and next-generation nuclear fuel cycles and inform treaty verification. Cyclus is an agent-based, systems-level simulator that tracks discrete material flow through the entire fuel cycle, from mining through burnup in reactors to a repository, or alternatively through one or more iterations of reprocessing. Cyclus includes socio-behavior models of individual actors, facilitating the study of clandestine material diversion from declared fuel cycles. Cyclus also features a region-institution-facility hierarchy that can incorporate the effects of tariffs and sanctions in a regional or global context. This paper presents initial Cyclus simulations of highly enriched uranium diversion from a declared once-through fuel cycle. Simulated material flow signals are analyzed to look for potential diversion of nuclear material for nuclear weaponry use.
    @inproceedings{mcgarry_modeling_2015,
    	title = {Modeling {Material} {Diversion} with the {Cyclus} {Nuclear} {Fuel} {Cycle} {Simulator}},
    	url = {http://pugwash.org/2015/10/20/61st-pugwash-conference-nagasaki-1-5-november-2015/},
    	abstract = {Already the dominant source of clean energy, nuclear power is growing at a rapid pace. While beneficial to a world confronting climate change, there are increasingly serious nuclear security and non-proliferation concerns attendant to this expansion. As a result, it is imperative to develop credible methods to verify compliance with treaties that control fissile material production, such as the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) or a potential Fissile Material Cutoff Treaty (FMCT). As part of the Consortium for Verification Technology, the Cyclus fuel cycle simulator is being used to model current and next-generation nuclear fuel cycles and inform treaty verification. Cyclus is an agent-based, systems-level simulator that tracks discrete material flow through the entire fuel cycle, from mining through burnup in reactors to a repository, or alternatively through one or more iterations of reprocessing. Cyclus includes socio-behavior models of individual actors, facilitating the study of clandestine material diversion from declared fuel cycles. Cyclus also features a region-institution-facility hierarchy that can incorporate the effects of tariffs and sanctions in a regional or global context. This paper presents initial Cyclus simulations of highly enriched uranium diversion from a declared once-through fuel cycle. Simulated material flow signals are analyzed to look for potential diversion of nuclear material for nuclear weaponry use.},
    	booktitle = {International {Student} {Young} {Pugwash} {Workshop}},
    	author = {McGarry, M.B. and Wilson, P.P.H.},
    	year = {2015},
    }
    
  12. Matthew Gidden, R. Carlsen, A. Opotowsky, O. Rakhimov, A. Scopatz, et al, " Agent-Based Dynamic Resource Exchange in Cyclus ", Proceedings of PHYSOR, (September 2014)
    @inproceedings{gidden_agent-based_2014,
    	address = {Kyoto, Japan},
    	title = {Agent-{Based} {Dynamic} {Resource} {Exchange} in {Cyclus}},
    	booktitle = {Proceedings of {PHYSOR}},
    	author = {Gidden, Matthew and Carlsen, R. and Opotowsky, A. and Rakhimov, O. and Scopatz, A. and Wilson, P.},
    	month = sep,
    	year = {2014},
    	keywords = {published},
    }
    
  13. Anthony Scopatz, Elliott D. Biondo, Carsten Brachem, John Xia, Paul P.H. WIlson, "PyNE Progress Report ", Transactions of the American Nuclear Society, (November 2013)
    @inproceedings{scopatz_pyne_2013,
    	title = {{PyNE} {Progress} {Report}},
    	url = {https://github.com/pyne/ans-winter-2013},
    	booktitle = {Transactions of the {American} {Nuclear} {Society}},
    	author = {Scopatz, Anthony and Biondo, Elliott D. and Brachem, Carsten and Xia, John and WIlson, Paul P.H.},
    	month = nov,
    	year = {2013},
    }
    
  14. C.A. D'Angelo, P.P.H Wilson, A. Davis, " Comparison between Unstructured Mesh Capabilities of DAGMCNP and MCNP6 ", Transactions of the American Nuclear Society, (November 2013)
    @inproceedings{dangelo_comparison_2013,
    	title = {Comparison between {Unstructured} {Mesh} {Capabilities} of {DAGMCNP} and {MCNP6}},
    	booktitle = {Transactions of the {American} {Nuclear} {Society}},
    	author = {D'Angelo, C.A. and Wilson, P.P.H and Davis, A.},
    	month = nov,
    	year = {2013},
    }
    
  15. K. L. Dunn, P. P. H. Wilson, " Bandwidth Sensitivity for Kernel Density Estimated Mesh Tallies ", Transactions of the American Nuclear Society, (Nov 2013)
    @inproceedings{dunn_bandwidth_2013,
    	title = {Bandwidth {Sensitivity} for {Kernel} {Density} {Estimated} {Mesh} {Tallies}},
    	booktitle = {Transactions of the {American} {Nuclear} {Society}},
    	author = {Dunn, K. L. and Wilson, P. P. H.},
    	month = nov,
    	year = {2013},
    }
    
  16. Matthew Gidden, Paul Wilson, " An Agent-Based Framework for Fuel Cycle Simulation with Recycling ", Proceedings of GLOBAL, (September 2013)
    @inproceedings{gidden_agent-based_2013,
    	address = {Salt Lake City, UT, United States},
    	title = {An {Agent}-{Based} {Framework} for {Fuel} {Cycle} {Simulation} with {Recycling}},
    	booktitle = {Proceedings of {GLOBAL}},
    	author = {Gidden, Matthew and Wilson, Paul},
    	month = sep,
    	year = {2013},
    }
    
  17. K. L. Dunn, P. H. Wilson, " Monte Carlo Mesh Tallies based on a Kernel Density Estimator Approach using Integrated Particle Tracks ", M&C 2013, (May 5-9, 2013)
    @inproceedings{dunn_monte_2013,
    	address = {Sun Valley, ID},
    	title = {Monte {Carlo} {Mesh} {Tallies} based on a {Kernel} {Density} {Estimator} {Approach} using {Integrated} {Particle} {Tracks}},
    	booktitle = {M\&{C} 2013},
    	publisher = {American Nuclear Society},
    	author = {Dunn, K. L. and Wilson, P. H.},
    	month = may,
    	year = {2013},
    }
    
  18. E. Relson, P.P.H. Wilson, Elliott Biondo, " Improved Mesh Based Photon Sampling Techniques For Neutron Activation Analysis ", M&C 2013, (May 5-9, 2013)
    The design of fusion power systems requires analysis of neutron activation of large, complex volumes, and the resulting particles emitted from these volumes. Structured mesh-based discretization of these problems allows for improved modeling in these activation analysis problems. Finer discretization of these problems results in large computational costs, which drives the investigation of more efficient methods. Within an ad hoc subroutine of the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP, we implement sampling of voxels and photon energies for volumetric sources using the alias method. The alias method enables efficient sampling of a discrete probability distribution, and operates in O(1) time, whereas the simpler direct discrete method requires O(log(n)) time. By using the alias method, voxel sampling becomes a viable alternative to sampling space with the O(1) approach of uniformly sampling the problem volume. Additionally, with voxel sampling it is straightforward to introduce biasing of volumetric sources, and we implement this biasing of voxels as an additional variance reduction technique that can be applied. We verify our implementation and compare the alias method, with and without biasing, to direct discrete sampling of voxels, and to uniform sampling. We study the behavior of source biasing in a second set of tests and find trends between improvements and source shape, material, and material density. Overall, however, the magnitude of improvements from source biasing appears to be limited. Future work will benefit from the implementation of efficient voxel sampling – particularly with conformal unstructured meshes where the uniform sampling approach cannot be applied.
    @inproceedings{relson_improved_2013,
    	address = {Sun Valley, ID},
    	title = {Improved {Mesh} {Based} {Photon} {Sampling} {Techniques} {For} {Neutron} {Activation} {Analysis}},
    	abstract = {The design of fusion power systems requires analysis of neutron activation of large, complex volumes, and the resulting particles emitted from these volumes. Structured mesh-based discretization of these problems allows for improved modeling in these activation analysis problems. Finer discretization of these problems results in large computational costs, which drives the investigation of more efficient methods. Within an ad hoc subroutine of the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP, we implement sampling of voxels and photon energies for volumetric sources using the alias method. The alias method enables efficient sampling of a discrete probability distribution, and operates in O(1) time, whereas the simpler direct discrete method requires O(log(n)) time. By using the alias method, voxel sampling becomes a viable alternative to sampling space with the O(1) approach of uniformly sampling the problem volume. Additionally, with voxel sampling it is straightforward to introduce biasing of volumetric sources,
    and we implement this biasing of voxels as an additional variance reduction technique that can be applied. We verify our implementation and compare the alias method, with and without biasing, to direct discrete sampling of voxels, and to uniform sampling. We study the behavior of source biasing in a second set of tests and find trends between improvements and source shape, material, and material density. Overall, however, the magnitude of improvements from source biasing appears to be limited. Future work will benefit from the implementation of efficient voxel sampling – particularly with conformal unstructured meshes where the uniform sampling approach cannot be applied.},
    	booktitle = {M\&{C} 2013},
    	publisher = {American Nuclear Society},
    	author = {Relson, E. and Wilson, P.P.H. and Biondo, Elliott},
    	month = may,
    	year = {2013},
    	keywords = {ALARA, MCNP, Photons, R2S-ACT, Sampling},
    }
    
  19. Kathryn D. Huff, " Hydrologic Nuclide Transport Models in Cyder, a Geologic Disposal Software Library. ", WM2013, (February 24--28, 2013)
    @inproceedings{huff_hydrologic_2013,
    	address = {Phoenix, AZ},
    	title = {Hydrologic {Nuclide} {Transport} {Models} in {Cyder}, a {Geologic} {Disposal} {Software} {Library}.},
    	shorttitle = {13328},
    	booktitle = {{WM2013}},
    	publisher = {Waste Management Symposium},
    	author = {Huff, Kathryn D.},
    	month = feb,
    	year = {2013},
    }
    
  20. Elliott D. Biondo, Eric Relson, Andrew Davis, Paul P.H. WIlson, "Implementation, Benchmarking, and Application of R2S-ACT: an Open-Source, Mesh-Based, Rigorous 2-Step Activation Workflow ", Transactions of the American Nuclear Society, (November 12, 2012)
    @inproceedings{biondo_implementation_2012,
    	address = {Washington, D.C.},
    	title = {Implementation, {Benchmarking}, and {Application} of {R2S}-{ACT}: an {Open}-{Source}, {Mesh}-{Based}, {Rigorous} 2-{Step} {Activation} {Workflow}},
    	volume = {109},
    	url = {https://github.com/cnerg/publications/tree/ans13w-r2s},
    	booktitle = {Transactions of the {American} {Nuclear} {Society}},
    	author = {Biondo, Elliott D. and Relson, Eric and Davis, Andrew and WIlson, Paul P.H.},
    	month = nov,
    	year = {2012},
    	pages = {1180--1183},
    }
    
  21. Kathryn Huff, Mark Nutt, "Key Processes and Parameters in a Generic Clay Disposal System Model ", Transactions of the American Nuclear Society, (November 11--15, 2012)
    Sensitivity analysis was performed with respect to various key processes and parameters affecting long-term post-closure performance of geologic repositories in clay media. Based on the detailed computational Clay Generic Disposal Sys- tem Model (GDSM) developed by the Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) campaign [1], these results provide an overview of the relative importance of processes that affect the repository per- formance of a generic clay disposal concept model. Further analysis supports a basis for development of rapid abstracted models in the context of system level fuel cycle simulation. Processes and parameters found to influence repository perfor- mance include the rate of waste form degradation, timing of waste package failure, and various coupled geochemical and hydrologic characteristics of the natural system including dif- fusion, solubility, and advection.
    @inproceedings{huff_key_2012,
    	address = {San Diego, CA},
    	series = {Environmental {Sciences} -- {General}},
    	title = {Key {Processes} and {Parameters} in a {Generic} {Clay} {Disposal} {System} {Model}},
    	volume = {107},
    	url = {http://epubs.ans.org.ezproxy.library.wisc.edu/download/?a=14711},
    	abstract = {Sensitivity analysis was performed with respect to various key processes and parameters affecting long-term post-closure performance of geologic repositories in clay media. Based on the detailed computational Clay Generic Disposal Sys- tem Model (GDSM) developed by the Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) campaign [1], these results provide an overview of the relative importance of processes that affect the repository per- formance of a generic clay disposal concept model. Further analysis supports a basis for development of rapid abstracted models in the context of system level fuel cycle simulation. Processes and parameters found to influence repository perfor- mance include the rate of waste form degradation, timing of waste package failure, and various coupled geochemical and hydrologic characteristics of the natural system including dif- fusion, solubility, and advection.},
    	language = {English},
    	booktitle = {Transactions of the {American} {Nuclear} {Society}},
    	publisher = {the American Nuclear Society},
    	author = {Huff, Kathryn and Nutt, Mark},
    	month = nov,
    	year = {2012},
    	pages = {208--211},
    }
    
  22. K. L. Dunn, P. P. H. Wilson, " Kernel Density Estimators for Monte Carlo Tallies on Unstructured Meshes ", Transactions of the American Nuclear Society, (Nov 2012)
    @inproceedings{dunn_kernel_2012,
    	title = {Kernel {Density} {Estimators} for {Monte} {Carlo} {Tallies} on {Unstructured} {Meshes}},
    	volume = {107},
    	booktitle = {Transactions of the {American} {Nuclear} {Society}},
    	author = {Dunn, K. L. and Wilson, P. P. H.},
    	month = nov,
    	year = {2012},
    	pages = {490--493},
    }
    
  23. Kathryn Huff, Theodore H. Bauer, " Numerical Calibration of an Analytical Generic Nuclear Repository Heat Transfer Model ", Transactions of the American Nuclear Society, (June 24--28, 2012)
    This work describes a benchmarking effort conducted to de- termine the accuracy of a new generic geology thermal repos- itory model relative to more traditional techniques and pro- poses a physically plausible auxillary thermal resistance com- ponent to improve their agreement.
    @inproceedings{huff_numerical_2012,
    	address = {Chicago, IL, United States},
    	series = {Modeling and {Simulation} in the {Fuel} {Cycle}},
    	title = {Numerical {Calibration} of an {Analytical} {Generic} {Nuclear} {Repository} {Heat} {Transfer} {Model}},
    	volume = {106},
    	abstract = {This work describes a benchmarking effort conducted to de- termine the accuracy of a new generic geology thermal repos- itory model relative to more traditional techniques and pro- poses a physically plausible auxillary thermal resistance com- ponent to improve their agreement.},
    	language = {English},
    	booktitle = {Transactions of the {American} {Nuclear} {Society}},
    	publisher = {American Nuclear Society, La Grange Park, IL 60526, United States},
    	author = {Huff, Kathryn and Bauer, Theodore H.},
    	month = jun,
    	year = {2012},
    	pages = {260--263},
    }
    
  24. R.N. Slaybaugh, T.M. Evans, G.G. Davidson, P.P.H. Wilson, " Rayleigh Quotient Iteration in 3D, Deterministic Neutron Transport ", , (Apr 15-20, 2012)
    @inproceedings{slaybaugh_rayleigh_2012,
    	address = {Knoxville, TN, United States},
    	title = {Rayleigh {Quotient} {Iteration} in {3D}, {Deterministic} {Neutron} {Transport}},
    	author = {Slaybaugh, R.N. and Evans, T.M. and Davidson, G.G. and Wilson, P.P.H.},
    	month = apr,
    	year = {2012},
    }
    
  25. Brandon M. Smith, Paul P.H. Wilson, " Modeling Impact-Induced Reactivity Changes Using DAG-MCNP ", Nuclear and Emerging Technologies for Space 2011, (Feb 7-10, 2011)
    @inproceedings{smith_modeling_2011,
    	address = {Albuquerque, NM, United States},
    	title = {Modeling {Impact}-{Induced} {Reactivity} {Changes} {Using} {DAG}-{MCNP}},
    	booktitle = {Nuclear and {Emerging} {Technologies} for {Space} 2011},
    	author = {Smith, Brandon M. and Wilson, Paul P.H.},
    	month = feb,
    	year = {2011},
    	note = {Paper 3290},
    	pages = {8},
    }
    
  26. Kathryn D. Huff, Paul PH Wilson, Matthew J. Gidden, " Open Architecture and Modular Paradigm of Cyclus, a Fuel Cycle Simulation Code ", Transactions of the American Nuclear Society, (2011)
    @inproceedings{huff_open_2011,
    	title = {Open {Architecture} and {Modular} {Paradigm} of {Cyclus}, a {Fuel} {Cycle} {Simulation} {Code}},
    	volume = {104},
    	booktitle = {Transactions of the {American} {Nuclear} {Society}},
    	author = {Huff, Kathryn D. and Wilson, Paul PH and Gidden, Matthew J.},
    	year = {2011},
    	pages = {183},
    }
    
  27. Kathryn Huff, A.M. Scopatz, N.D. Preston, P.P.H. Wilson, " Rapid Peer Education of a Computational Nuclear Engineering Skill Suite ", Transactions of the American Nuclear Society, (2011)
    Detailed reactor models, massively parallelized calculations, and enormously collaborative simulation projects are increas- ingly integral to nuclear engineering. However, the quality and caliber of this work is limited by a workforce lacking formal training in a software development skill suite that is becom- ing increasingly essential. To address this unmet need, The Hacker Within (THW), a student organization at the University of Wisconsin, has developed a series of short courses address- ing best practices such as version control and test driven code development, as well as basic skills such as UNIX mobility. These ‘Boot Camps’ seek to provide time efficient introduc- tions to essential programming languages and tools without turning “biochemists and mechanical engineers into computer scientists.”[1][2]
    @inproceedings{huff_rapid_2011,
    	address = {Hollywood, FL, United States},
    	series = {Training, {Human} {Performance}, and {Work} {Force} {Development}},
    	title = {Rapid {Peer} {Education} of a {Computational} {Nuclear} {Engineering} {Skill} {Suite}},
    	volume = {104},
    	abstract = {Detailed reactor models, massively parallelized calculations, and enormously collaborative simulation projects are increas- ingly integral to nuclear engineering. However, the quality and caliber of this work is limited by a workforce lacking formal training in a software development skill suite that is becom- ing increasingly essential. To address this unmet need, The Hacker Within (THW), a student organization at the University of Wisconsin, has developed a series of short courses address- ing best practices such as version control and test driven code development, as well as basic skills such as UNIX mobility. These ‘Boot Camps’ seek to provide time efficient introduc- tions to essential programming languages and tools without turning “biochemists and mechanical engineers into computer scientists.”[1][2]},
    	language = {English},
    	booktitle = {Transactions of the {American} {Nuclear} {Society}},
    	publisher = {American Nuclear Society, La Grange Park, IL 60526, United States},
    	author = {Huff, Kathryn and Scopatz, A.M. and Preston, N.D. and Wilson, P.P.H.},
    	year = {2011},
    	keywords = {Computer Science, Education, Models, Reactor, Software, The Hacker Within (THW)},
    	pages = {103--104},
    }
    
  28. B.M. Smith, T.J. Tautges, P.P.H. Wilson, " Sealing Faceted Surfaces to Achieve Watertight CAD Models ", Proceedings of the 19th International Meshing Roundtable, (Oct 3-6, 2010)
    @inproceedings{smith_sealing_2010,
    	address = {Chattanooga, TN, United States},
    	title = {Sealing {Faceted} {Surfaces} to {Achieve} {Watertight} {CAD} {Models}},
    	isbn = {978-3-642-15413-3},
    	doi = {10.1007/978-3-642-15414-0},
    	booktitle = {Proceedings of the 19th {International} {Meshing} {Roundtable}},
    	publisher = {Springer},
    	author = {Smith, B.M. and Tautges, T.J. and Wilson, P.P.H.},
    	month = oct,
    	year = {2010},
    	pages = {177--194},
    }
    
  29. Paul P.H. Wilson, Patrick Snouffer, Erich A. Schneider, Joshua L. Peterson, " A Monte Carlo Surface Source Method for Advanced Test Reactor Experiment Prototyping ", Advances in Reactor Physics to Power the Nuclear Renaissance, (May 9-14, 2010)
    @inproceedings{wilson_monte_2010,
    	address = {Pittsburgh, PA, United States},
    	title = {A {Monte} {Carlo} {Surface} {Source} {Method} for {Advanced} {Test} {Reactor} {Experiment} {Prototyping}},
    	booktitle = {Advances in {Reactor} {Physics} to {Power} the {Nuclear} {Renaissance}},
    	publisher = {American Nuclear Society},
    	author = {Wilson, Paul P.H. and Snouffer, Patrick and Schneider, Erich A. and Peterson, Joshua L.},
    	month = may,
    	year = {2010},
    	pages = {12},
    }
    
  30. Kyle M. Oliver, Paul P.H. Wilson, Arnaud Reveillere, Tae Wook Ahn, Kerry Dunn, et al, " Studying international fuel cycle robustness with the GENIUSv2 discrete facilities/materials fuel cycle systems analysis tool ", Proceedings of GLOBAL 2009: Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles and Systems, September 6-11, 2009, (Sept 6-11, 2009)
    GENIUSv2 is a discrete-facilities/discrete-materials nuclear fuel cycle systems analysis tool currently under development at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. It is designed not only to compute the capacity and mass flow data produced by other study tools but also to model the complex relationships between nuclear fuel cycle facilities; the institutions that own them; and the national, intranational, and/or transnational regions in which they operate. This paper describes novel modeling capabilities and methodological contributions present in GENIUSv2, including its treatment of the region-institution-facility hierarchy and its optimization-compatible framework. We then present a number of test problems designed to demonstrate the code’s ability to closely reproduce results from another study tool (Idaho National Laboratory’s VISION code) and to richly model multi-region scenarios not easily captured by the data models of other codes currently available.
    @inproceedings{oliver_studying_2009,
    	address = {Paris, France},
    	series = {{GLOBAL} 2009: {Advanced} {Nuclear} {Fuel} {Cycles} and {Systems}},
    	title = {Studying international fuel cycle robustness with the {GENIUSv2} discrete facilities/materials fuel cycle systems analysis tool},
    	abstract = {GENIUSv2 is a discrete-facilities/discrete-materials nuclear fuel cycle systems analysis tool currently under development at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. It is designed not only to compute the capacity and mass flow data produced by other study tools but also to model the complex relationships between nuclear fuel cycle facilities; the institutions that own them; and the national, intranational, and/or transnational regions in which they operate. This paper describes novel modeling capabilities and methodological contributions present in GENIUSv2, including its treatment of the region-institution-facility hierarchy and its optimization-compatible framework. We then present a number of test problems designed to demonstrate the code’s ability to closely reproduce results from another study tool (Idaho National Laboratory’s VISION code) and to richly model multi-region scenarios not easily captured by the data models of other codes currently available.},
    	booktitle = {Proceedings of {GLOBAL} 2009: {Advanced} {Nuclear} {Fuel} {Cycles} and {Systems}, {September} 6-11, 2009},
    	author = {Oliver, Kyle M. and Wilson, Paul P.H. and Reveillere, Arnaud and Ahn, Tae Wook and Dunn, Kerry and Huff, Kathryn D. and Elmore, Royal A.},
    	month = sep,
    	year = {2009},
    	keywords = {Capacity, Discrete Facility/ Discrete Model (DF/DM), Geniusv2, Mass Flow Data, Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities, Nuclear Fuel Cycle Systems Analysis Tool},
    }
    
  31. Timothy J. Tautges, P. P. H. Wilson, Jason Kraftcheck, Brandon M. Smith, Douglass L. Henderson, " Acceleration Techniques for Direct Use of CAD-Based Geometries in Monte Carlo Radiation Transport ", International Conference on Mathematics, Computational Methods & Reactor Physics (M&C 2009), (May 2009)
    @inproceedings{tautges_acceleration_2009,
    	address = {Saratoga Springs, NY},
    	title = {Acceleration {Techniques} for {Direct} {Use} of {CAD}-{Based} {Geometries} in {Monte} {Carlo} {Radiation} {Transport}},
    	booktitle = {International {Conference} on {Mathematics}, {Computational} {Methods} \& {Reactor} {Physics} ({M}\&{C} 2009)},
    	publisher = {American Nuclear Society},
    	author = {Tautges, Timothy J. and Wilson, P. P. H. and Kraftcheck, Jason and Smith, Brandon M. and Henderson, Douglass L.},
    	month = may,
    	year = {2009},
    	keywords = {Acceleration, CAD, DAGMC, Monte Carlo Methods},
    }
    
  32. D. Moule, P. Wilson, " Mesh Generation methods for Deterministic Radiation Transport Codes ", Transactions of the American Nuclear Society, (2009)
    @inproceedings{moule_mesh_2009,
    	title = {Mesh {Generation} methods for {Deterministic} {Radiation} {Transport} {Codes}},
    	volume = {104},
    	booktitle = {Transactions of the {American} {Nuclear} {Society}},
    	author = {Moule, D. and Wilson, P.},
    	year = {2009},
    	note = {keep me},
    	keywords = {CAD Models, Cartesian Meshes, Criticality Calculations, Direct Accelerated Geometry Monte Carlo (DAGMC), Geometry, Radiation Transport Code, Shielding},
    	pages = {407--408},
    }
    
  33. Ahmad M. Ibrahim, Douglas E. Peplow, Thomas M. Evans, John C. Wagner, Paul P. H. Wilson, " Improving the mesh generation capabilities in the SCALE hybrid shielding analysis sequence ", 2009 ANS Annual Meeting and Embedded Topical Meeting: Nuclear and Emerging Technologies for Space, NETS 2009, June 14, 2009 - June 18, 2009, (2009)
    @inproceedings{ibrahim_improving_2009,
    	address = {Atlanta, GA, United states},
    	series = {Transactions of the {American} {Nuclear} {Society}},
    	title = {Improving the mesh generation capabilities in the {SCALE} hybrid shielding analysis sequence},
    	volume = {100},
    	isbn = {0003018X},
    	booktitle = {2009 {ANS} {Annual} {Meeting} and {Embedded} {Topical} {Meeting}: {Nuclear} and {Emerging} {Technologies} for {Space}, {NETS} 2009, {June} 14, 2009 - {June} 18, 2009},
    	publisher = {American Nuclear Society},
    	author = {Ibrahim, Ahmad M. and Peplow, Douglas E. and Evans, Thomas M. and Wagner, John C. and Wilson, Paul P. H.},
    	year = {2009},
    	keywords = {Analysis, CADIS, Discrete Ordinates, MAVRIC, Macromaterials (MM), Monte Carlo, Radiation Shielding, SCALE},
    	pages = {302--304},
    }
    
  34. M.E. Sawan, P.P.H. Wilson, T. Tautges, L.A. El-Guebaly, D.L. Henderson, et al, "Application of CAD-neutronics coupling to geometrically complex fusion systems ", 2009 23rd IEEE/NPSS Symposium on Fusion Engineering, SOFE 2009, June 1, 2009 - June 5, 2009, (2009)
    An innovative computational tool (DAG-MCNP) has been developed for efficient and accurate 3-D nuclear analysis of geometrically complex fusion systems. Direct coupling with CAD models allows preserving the geometrical details, eliminating possible human error, and faster design iterations. DAG-MCNP has been applied to perform 3-D nuclear analysis for several fusion designs and demonstrated the ability to generate high-fidelity high-resolution results that significantly improve the design process. This tool will be the core for a full CAD-based simulation predictive capability that couples engineering analyses directly to the CAD solid model. 2009 IEEE.
    @inproceedings{sawan_application_2009,
    	address = {San Diego, CA, United states},
    	series = {Proceedings - {Symposium} on {Fusion} {Engineering}},
    	title = {Application of {CAD}-neutronics coupling to geometrically complex fusion systems},
    	url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/FUSION.2009.5226505},
    	abstract = {An innovative computational tool (DAG-MCNP) has been developed for efficient and accurate 3-D nuclear analysis of geometrically complex fusion systems. Direct coupling with CAD models allows preserving the geometrical details, eliminating possible human error, and faster design iterations. DAG-MCNP has been applied to perform 3-D nuclear analysis for several fusion designs and demonstrated the ability to generate high-fidelity high-resolution results that significantly improve the design process. This tool will be the core for a full CAD-based simulation predictive capability that couples engineering analyses directly to the CAD solid model. 2009 IEEE.},
    	urldate = {2010-01-15},
    	booktitle = {2009 23rd {IEEE}/{NPSS} {Symposium} on {Fusion} {Engineering}, {SOFE} 2009, {June} 1, 2009 - {June} 5, 2009},
    	publisher = {Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.},
    	author = {Sawan, M.E. and Wilson, P.P.H. and Tautges, T. and El-Guebaly, L.A. and Henderson, D.L. and Bohm, T.D. and Marriott, E.P. and Kiedrowski, B. and Smith, B. and Ibrahim, A. and Slaybaugh, R.},
    	year = {2009},
    	keywords = {3D, Computer-Aided Design, Monte Carlo Methods, Simulators},
    }
    
  35. P.P.H. Wilson, M.E. Sawan, E.P. Marriott, M.A. Ulrickson, "Nuclear Heating in Critical Components of Alternative ITER First Wall Attachment Mechanism ", 2009 23rd IEEE/NPSS Symposium on Fusion Engineering, SOFE 2009, June 1, 2009 - June 5, 2009, (2009)
    A nuclear analysis was performed for an alternate ITER first wall attachment scheme to estimate the nuclear heating in critical components. With a variety of components near the first wall without direct cooling, there is concern that the operating temperatures will be above engineering limits. Using DAG-MCNP5, a 1-D analysis framework was used to estimate the nuclear heating in a detailed 3-D model of the first wall and shield attachment mechanism. The parts of the stainless steel hinge at the base of system experience nuclear heating between 1.85 and 5.07 W/cm3. The copper yoke and Inconel-718 yoke pin experience a heat rate of 2.44 W/cm3. If stainless steel bolts are used, the bolt heads will experience 2.9 W/cm3, with only a small reduction from plugging the bolt access holes. If molybdenum bolts are used, the bolt head heating is increased to 3.4 W/cm3. The heating in the hinge parts and stainless steel bolts is expected to lead to temperatures higher than engineering limits. Due to a higher thermal conductivity and melting temperature, the Mo bolts are expected to operate at acceptable temperatures. 2009 IEEE.
    @inproceedings{wilson_nuclear_2009,
    	address = {San Diego, CA, United states},
    	series = {Proceedings - {Symposium} on {Fusion} {Engineering}},
    	title = {Nuclear {Heating} in {Critical} {Components} of {Alternative} {ITER} {First} {Wall} {Attachment} {Mechanism}},
    	url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/FUSION.2009.5226369},
    	abstract = {A nuclear analysis was performed for an alternate ITER first wall attachment scheme to estimate the nuclear heating in critical components. With a variety of components near the first wall without direct cooling, there is concern that the operating temperatures will be above engineering limits. Using DAG-MCNP5, a 1-D analysis framework was used to estimate the nuclear heating in a detailed 3-D model of the first wall and shield attachment mechanism. The parts of the stainless steel hinge at the base of system experience nuclear heating between 1.85 and 5.07 W/cm3. The copper yoke and Inconel-718 yoke pin experience a heat rate of 2.44 W/cm3. If stainless steel bolts are used, the bolt heads will experience 2.9 W/cm3, with only a small reduction from plugging the bolt access holes. If molybdenum bolts are used, the bolt head heating is increased to 3.4 W/cm3. The heating in the hinge parts and stainless steel bolts is expected to lead to temperatures higher than engineering limits. Due to a higher thermal conductivity and melting temperature, the Mo bolts are expected to operate at acceptable temperatures. 2009 IEEE.},
    	urldate = {2010-01-15},
    	booktitle = {2009 23rd {IEEE}/{NPSS} {Symposium} on {Fusion} {Engineering}, {SOFE} 2009, {June} 1, 2009 - {June} 5, 2009},
    	publisher = {Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.},
    	author = {Wilson, P.P.H. and Sawan, M.E. and Marriott, E.P. and Ulrickson, M.A.},
    	year = {2009},
    	keywords = {3D, Bolts, Experimental Reactors, Heating, Melting Point, Metal Analysis, Molybdenum, Monte Carlo Methods, Stainless Steel},
    }
    
  36. T.E. Radel, R.F. Radel, J.A. Smith, R.J. Lipinski, P.H.H. Wilson, " Methods for modeling impact-induced reactivity changes in space reactors ", 3rd Topical Meeting on Nuclear and Emerging Technologies for Space 2009, NETS 2009, June 14, 2009 - June 19, 2009, (2009)
    This paper describes techniques for determining impact deformation and the subsequent reactivity change for a space reactor impacting the ground following a potential launch accident. This technique could be used to determine the margin of subcriticality for such potential accidents. Specifically, the approach couples a finite element continuum mechanics model (PRONTO3D or PRESTO) with a neutronics code (MCNP). DAGMC, developed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, is used to convert PRONTO3D output to a usable MCNP input file. This paper summarizes what has been done historically for reactor launch analysis, describes the impact criticality analysis methodology, and presents preliminary results using representative reactor designs.
    @inproceedings{radel_methods_2009,
    	address = {Atlanta, GA, United states},
    	series = {American {Nuclear} {Society} - 3rd {Topical} {Meeting} on {Nuclear} and {Emerging} {Technologies} for {Space} 2009, {NETS} 2009},
    	title = {Methods for modeling impact-induced reactivity changes in space reactors},
    	abstract = {This paper describes techniques for determining impact deformation and the subsequent reactivity change for a space reactor impacting the ground following a potential launch accident. This technique could be used to determine the margin of subcriticality for such potential accidents. Specifically, the approach couples a finite element continuum mechanics model (PRONTO3D or PRESTO) with a neutronics code (MCNP). DAGMC, developed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, is used to convert PRONTO3D output to a usable MCNP input file. This paper summarizes what has been done historically for reactor launch analysis, describes the impact criticality analysis methodology, and presents preliminary results using representative reactor designs.},
    	booktitle = {3rd {Topical} {Meeting} on {Nuclear} and {Emerging} {Technologies} for {Space} 2009, {NETS} 2009, {June} 14, 2009 - {June} 19, 2009},
    	publisher = {American Nuclear Society},
    	author = {Radel, T.E. and Radel, R.F. and Smith, J.A. and Lipinski, R.J. and Wilson, P.H.H.},
    	year = {2009},
    	keywords = {Continuum Mechanics, Elasticity, Launching, Nuclear Reactor Accidents, Reactivity (nuclear), Semiconductor Quantum Dots},
    	pages = {300--309},
    }
    

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